3-MMC (3-Methylmethcathinone) is a synthetic cathinone with stimulant properties similar to amphetamines.
3-MMC (3-Methylmethcathinone) contains a chiral centre at the C-2 carbon of the propane sidechain, so that two enantiomers exist: R-3-MMC and S-3-MMC.
3-MMC (3-Methylmethcathinone) is a structural isomer of 4-methylmethcathinone (4-MMC, mephedrone) for which various methods of synthesis exist.
Whilst there are some but limited studies regarding mephedrone, similar studies for 3-MMC are lacking. However, the general pharmacology of 3-MMC could be expected to be similar to mephedrone in that 3-MMC is also a β-ketoamphetamine stimulant drug of abuse with structural and mechanistic similarities to methamphetamine. Mephedrone has been found to stimulate dopamine release and block its reuptake through an interaction with the dopamine transporter (DAT). It also has some affinity for various serotonin receptor subtypes. Mephedrone was not found to have a neurotoxic effect on the dopamine or serotonin system when given alone but no such studies involving 3-MMC have been performed.
3-MMC is generally administrated by insufflation, inhalation, orally or by injection.
Repeated administration in a single session has also been reported, often by different
routes. Self-reported dosages range from 50 to 150 mg or more (250–500 mg), with many users reporting repeated administration to prolong the euphoric experience, leading to 0.5–2 g doses consumed during a single session or within a few hours.4,9,10 Specifically, a questionnaire-based study of self-reporting 3-MMC users in Slovenia found that 88.8% insufflated the drug and 42.6% used it orally; the study did not find any injecting users of 3-MMC. A large share of users (26.2%) reported using more than 1.5 g of 3-MMC in a single evening (n = 168) and over half of the respondents answered that they consumed more than 0.5 g of 3-MMC in a single evening. 43.6% stated going on binges and consuming new psychoactive substances uninterruptedly for more than 24 hours.
Tolerance and addiction potential
As with other stimulants, the chronic use of 3-MMC can be considered moderately addictive with a high potential for abuse and is capable of causing psychological dependence among certain users. When addiction has developed, cravings and withdrawal effects may occur if a person suddenly stops their usage. It is said that this compound is considerably more addictive than that of mephedrone.
Tolerance to many of the effects of 3-MMC develops with prolonged and repeated use. This results in users having to administer increasingly large doses to achieve the same effects. After that, it takes about 3 – 7 days for the tolerance to be reduced to half and 1 – 2 weeks to be back at baseline (in the absence of further consumption). 3-MMC presents cross-tolerance with all dopaminergic stimulants, meaning that after the consumption of 3-MMC all stimulants will have a reduced effect.
No acute or chronic pre-clinical studies were identified that have examined the toxicity of3-MMC in humans or animals. However, during pharmacokinetic pig studies the researchers stated that no treatment-related mortality and morbidity was observed and no gross pathological findings were detected.
IUPAC Name: 2-(Methylamino)-1-(3-methylphenyl)-1-propanone
Molecular Formula: C11H15NO
Molecular Weight: 177.24 g/mol
Melting point: 193.2 ± 0.2°C (hydrochloride salt)
Boiling point: 280.5 ± 23.0°C at 760 mm Hg
CAS Number 1246816-62-5
Solubility: 3-MMC is sparingly soluble in PBS; slightly soluble in ethanol,
dimethyl sulfoxide, and dimethyl formamide.